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How to Successfully Defend Against a DUI in California

Introduction

Facing a DUI defense in California can be frightening and confusing. The laws are complex, the penalties harsh, and the impact on your future can be severe. Whether you’re a first-time offender or have prior convictions, knowing your rights and understanding the basics of DUI law is crucial.

Key Points:

  • DUI charges can lead to license suspension, hefty fines, and even jail time.
  • Defending against a DUI is possible with the right legal strategies.
  • Immediate steps include contacting an experienced DUI attorney.

A DUI conviction can haunt you for years. However, a strong defense can sometimes result in reduced penalties or even dismissals. There are many defense strategies available, such as challenging the legality of the traffic stop or questioning the accuracy of breathalyzer results.

Stay tuned as we break down essential DUI laws, penalties, and top defense strategies.

Key Steps for DUI Defense - DUI defense California infographic infographic-line-3-steps

Understanding DUI Charges in California

California has strict DUI laws designed to keep roads safe. Understanding these laws is crucial if you’re facing a DUI charge.

California DUI Laws

In California, driving under the influence (DUI) is defined under Vehicle Code 23152(a) VC. This law makes it illegal to drive a vehicle if you are under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or both. Another key statute, Vehicle Code 23152(b) VC, makes it illegal to drive with a Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of 0.08% or higher.

BAC Limits

Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) is a measure of the amount of alcohol in your blood. California has set specific BAC limits:

  • 0.08% or higher for most drivers
  • 0.04% or higher for commercial drivers
  • 0.01% or higher for drivers under 21

These limits are crucial because they define “per se” DUI offenses, meaning that simply having a BAC over these limits is enough for a DUI charge, regardless of whether your driving seemed impaired.

Penalties for DUI in California

The penalties for a DUI conviction in California can be severe and vary based on factors such as prior offenses and the presence of aggravating circumstances. Here’s a general outline:

  • First Offense: Probation, fines up to $1,000, DUI school, and a six-month license suspension.
  • Second Offense: Increased fines, longer DUI school, a two-year license suspension, and mandatory jail time.
  • Third Offense: Even steeper fines, longer jail time, a three-year license suspension, and potential installation of an ignition interlock device.

Legal Implications

A DUI conviction carries significant legal implications:

  • Criminal Record: A DUI stays on your criminal record, which can affect job prospects and housing applications.
  • License Suspension: The DMV can suspend your license, making daily activities challenging.
  • Increased Insurance Rates: Insurance premiums often skyrocket after a DUI conviction.

Mitigating and Aggravating Factors

Certain factors can influence the severity of the penalties:

  • Mitigating Factors: First-time offense, no prior criminal record, and cooperation with law enforcement can lead to reduced penalties.
  • Aggravating Factors: High BAC, reckless driving, causing an accident, or having minors in the car can result in harsher penalties, including felony charges.

Conclusion

Understanding the ins and outs of California’s DUI laws is the first step in building a strong defense. Next, we’ll explore the top defense strategies to help you navigate through a DUI charge successfully.

Stay with us as we dive into the most effective DUI defense strategies in California.

Top 10 DUI Defense Strategies in California

Facing a DUI charge in California can be overwhelming. However, several defense strategies can help you fight the charges. Here are the top 10 DUI defense strategies that can make a difference in your case:

Erratic Driving Does Not Equal DUI

One of the first things a prosecutor will focus on is your driving pattern. They might argue that erratic driving is a sign of intoxication. However, people drive erratically for many reasons unrelated to alcohol or drugs.

Example: You might have been distracted by changing the radio station or talking to a passenger. Your DUI lawyer can cross-examine the arresting officer to highlight moments where you were driving safely.

Challenging Physical Symptoms

Physical symptoms such as red eyes, slurred speech, or an unsteady gait are often cited as evidence of intoxication. However, these symptoms can be caused by other factors like allergies, fatigue, or even a cold.

Example: If you have allergies, your red eyes could be due to pollen, not alcohol. Your attorney can use this to challenge the prosecution’s claims.

Improper Field Sobriety Tests

Field sobriety tests are not always reliable. Factors like physical limitations, medical conditions, or even wearing high heels can affect your performance.

Example: If you have a medical condition that affects your balance, this could explain why you didn’t perform well on a walk-and-turn test.

Breathalyzer Accuracy

Breathalyzers are not foolproof. They can malfunction, be improperly calibrated, or be affected by medical conditions like GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease).

Example: Radiofrequency interference can also affect the accuracy of a breathalyzer. Your lawyer can question the reliability of the test results.

Importance of the 15-Minute Observation Period

Before administering a breathalyzer test, the officer must observe you for 15 minutes to ensure you don’t eat, drink, or smoke. If this observation period is not properly conducted, the test results can be challenged.

Example: If the officer was distracted or doing paperwork during this period, your lawyer can argue that the breathalyzer results are invalid.

Rising Blood Alcohol as a Defense

Blood alcohol content (BAC) can rise over time. If you were tested some time after being pulled over, your BAC might have been below the legal limit while you were actually driving.

Example: If you had a drink just before driving, your BAC could have been rising when you were tested, leading to a falsely high result.

Medical Conditions Affecting BAC Readings

Certain medical conditions can affect BAC readings. Conditions like diabetes, ketosis, and GERD can lead to falsely high BAC results.

Example: Ketosis, a state some people enter while on a low-carb diet, can produce acetone, which breathalyzers can mistake for alcohol.

Police Misconduct and Procedural Violations

If the arresting officer did not have probable cause to stop you, or if they violated your rights during the arrest, your case could be dismissed.

Example: If the officer did not read you your Miranda rights, any statements you made could be inadmissible in court.

Title 17 Violations

California Code of Regulations Title 17 outlines the procedures for conducting DUI blood and breath tests. Any deviation from these procedures can be grounds for challenging the test results.

Example: If the blood sample was not stored properly, it could lead to contamination and inaccurate results.

Lack of Probable Cause

The police must have a valid reason to pull you over. If they did not, any evidence gathered during the stop could be inadmissible.

Example: If the officer stopped you without reasonable suspicion, your lawyer could file a motion to suppress the evidence, potentially leading to the dismissal of your case.

By understanding and leveraging these defense strategies, you can significantly improve your chances of successfully defending against a DUI charge in California.

Erratic Driving Does Not Equal DUI

One of the first things a prosecutor will zero in on during a DUI case in California is your driving pattern. They often argue that erratic driving behavior, such as speeding or weaving, is consistent with driving under the influence.

However, erratic driving alone does not prove you were intoxicated.

Prosecutor Focus: Driving Pattern

Prosecutors often rely on the arresting officer’s testimony about your driving behavior. They might claim you were driving in a manner that indicates impairment, like swerving between lanes. But your driving pattern is not definitive proof of DUI.

Rebuttal Strategies: Safe Driving Testimony

Your DUI defense attorney can challenge this narrative. During cross-examination, your lawyer can ask the officer to testify about the moments you were driving correctly and safely. This helps create a balanced view of your driving behavior.

Key Points to Highlight:

  • Sober people commit most traffic violations.
  • A driving pattern is not a reliable predictor of DUI.

Real-Life Examples

Consider this: People often drive erratically for reasons unrelated to alcohol or drugs. They might be adjusting the radio, eating, or dealing with a distraction like a child in the back seat. These actions can mimic the driving patterns often attributed to DUI.

Safe Driving Testimony

Your lawyer can bring in witnesses or use dashcam footage to show moments where you drove safely. This helps build a narrative that your erratic driving was an isolated incident, not indicative of impairment.

Example: In a case where a defendant was accused of DUI due to weaving in the lane, their lawyer showed that the defendant was avoiding potholes. The jury found this explanation credible, leading to a more favorable outcome.

By focusing on these strategies, you can effectively counter the prosecutor’s claims about erratic driving and strengthen your DUI defense.

Stay tuned as we delve deeper into other defense strategies to help you navigate your DUI case.

Challenging Breathalyzer Accuracy

Breathalyzer tests are a common tool used by law enforcement to measure blood alcohol concentration (BAC). However, these devices are not infallible, and there are several ways to challenge their accuracy in a DUI defense.

Breath Test Errors

Breathalyzer tests can produce false positives due to various factors:

  • Non-Alcoholic Substances: Products like breath sprays or mouthwash can contain alcohol and lead to inaccurate readings. People with diabetes might have acetones on their breath, which can also cause false positives.
  • Residual Mouth Alcohol: Recent alcohol consumption, burping, or vomiting can leave alcohol in the mouth, skewing the test results. Officers should wait 15 minutes after such events before administering the test to ensure accuracy.

Malfunctioning Instrument

Breathalyzer devices need regular maintenance and calibration to function correctly. If the device is not calibrated according to the schedule, or if it malfunctions, the results can be unreliable. Your DUI lawyer can investigate maintenance logs and calibration records to identify any discrepancies.

Improper Handling

Breathalyzers must be operated by trained personnel who follow strict protocols. Any deviation from these procedures can compromise the test results. For instance, if an officer fails to observe you for the required 15 minutes before administering the test, the results can be challenged.

Medical Conditions

Certain medical conditions can affect BAC readings:

  • GERD and Acid Reflux: These conditions can cause alcohol from the stomach to enter the mouth, leading to falsely high BAC readings.
  • Diabetes and Ketosis: People with diabetes or those on low-carb diets can produce ketones, which breathalyzers may mistakenly identify as alcohol.
  • Auto-Brewery Syndrome: This rare condition causes the body to produce alcohol internally, leading to elevated BAC levels without alcohol consumption.

Radiofrequency Interference (RFI)

Electronic devices, including breathalyzers, can be affected by radiofrequency interference. The U.S. Department of Justice has acknowledged that RFI can cause inaccurate test results. If there was significant electronic interference at the time of your test, this could be a viable defense.

By understanding and leveraging these potential issues, you can challenge the accuracy of breathalyzer tests and strengthen your DUI defense in California.

Breathalyzer test - DUI defense California

Next, we’ll discuss the importance of the 15-minute observation period and how it can impact your DUI case.

Importance of the 15-Minute Observation Period

One critical aspect of DUI defense in California is the 15-minute observation period. Before a breathalyzer test, the arresting officer must observe you continuously for 15 minutes. This ensures that nothing interferes with the accuracy of the test.

Observation Requirement

During this period, you should not eat, drink, smoke, or put anything in your mouth. The officer also needs to ensure you don’t burp, belch, or regurgitate. Any of these actions could bring alcohol from your stomach into your mouth, skewing the test results.

Officer Distractions

However, many officers fail to observe you properly. They might get distracted by paperwork, setting up the breathalyzer, or talking on the radio. For instance, if the officer was busy with other tasks, they might not notice if you burped or hiccuped. This can cast doubt on the test’s validity.

Questioning Observation Validity

To challenge the observation period, your lawyer might ask the officer detailed questions during cross-examination. Here’s an example:

“Officer, you mentioned that you were filling out paperwork during the observation period. How could you be sure the defendant didn’t burp or put something in their mouth?”

This line of questioning can create reasonable doubt about whether the observation was conducted properly. If the observation period is proven invalid, the breath test results might be excluded from evidence.

Real-Life Example

Consider Tim’s case from San Bernardino County. The officer claimed to have observed Tim for 15 minutes before his breath test. But during cross-examination, it was revealed that the observation period occurred while driving to the station. Tim was alone in the backseat, making it impossible for the officer to observe him continuously. This led to Tim successfully fighting his DUI charges.

Legal References

California Code of Regulations Title 17 mandates this observation period. According to Section 1219.3, the breath sample must be collected only after continuous observation for 15 minutes. This regulation is crucial for ensuring fair and accurate DUI testing.

By questioning the validity of the observation period, you can undermine the prosecution’s case and potentially have the breath test results dismissed. This can be a powerful strategy in your DUI defense California.

Next, we’ll look into how similar symptoms of DUI are not an indicator and how you can use this to your advantage.

Similar Symptoms of DUI Are Not an Indicator

When it comes to DUI charges, physical symptoms like red, watery eyes, slurred speech, and a flushed face are often cited as evidence of intoxication. But these symptoms can be misleading.

Alternative Explanations

There are many innocent reasons for these symptoms. For example:

  • Allergies: Red, watery eyes can be caused by allergic reactions.
  • Fatigue: Lack of sleep can result in slurred speech and an unsteady gait.
  • Eye Irritation: Dust or wind can make your eyes appear bloodshot.
  • Emotional Stress: Nervousness or embarrassment can flush your face and make you stumble on your words.

Real-Life Example

Imagine you’re driving home after a long day at work. You’re exhausted and your eyes are red from staring at a computer screen all day. An officer pulls you over and mistakes these signs for intoxication. This kind of situation is more common than you might think.

Expert Testimony

An experienced DUI attorney can bring in medical experts to testify about these alternative explanations. For instance, a doctor could explain how fatigue or allergies could mimic the symptoms of intoxication.

Legal Precedents

In some cases, courts have recognized that these symptoms alone are not enough to prove DUI. For example, in People v. Bowers, the court found that the defendant’s symptoms were consistent with fatigue and not necessarily intoxication.

Key Takeaway

Don’t let physical symptoms alone be the deciding factor in your case. There are many innocent reasons for these signs, and a skilled attorney can help you prove it.

Next, we’ll discuss improper field sobriety tests and how they can affect your defense.

Improper Field Sobriety Tests

Field sobriety tests (FSTs) are often used by police to determine if a driver is impaired. However, these tests are far from foolproof. Understanding the flaws in these tests can help you build a strong DUI defense in California.

Test Conditions

Field sobriety tests should be conducted under ideal conditions to ensure accuracy. But in reality, this is rarely the case. Tests are often administered on uneven surfaces, in poor lighting, or near moving traffic. These conditions can make it difficult for anyone to perform well, let alone someone who might be nervous or tired.

Example: Imagine trying to walk a straight line on a rocky shoulder of the road at night. Even a sober person would struggle.

Physical Limitations

Not everyone has the same physical abilities. Injuries, age, or medical conditions can severely impact performance on FSTs.

Case Study: In People v. Cardenas, the defendant had a leg injury that made it impossible for him to perform the walk-and-turn test. The court found that the test results were not reliable indicators of intoxication.

Key Point: Always inform the officer of any physical limitations you have before starting the test.

Language Barriers

If English is not your first language, you might have difficulty understanding the officer’s instructions. This can lead to poor performance on the tests.

Example: A driver who speaks limited English might not fully grasp the instructions for the Horizontal Nystagmus Test, which involves following a moving object with your eyes.

Tip: If you are not confident in your understanding of the instructions, let the officer know.

Refusal Rights

In California, you have the right to refuse field sobriety tests. These tests are not mandatory, and refusing them cannot be used against you in court.

Important: If you choose to refuse, do so politely and clearly. Say something like, “I respectfully decline to take the field sobriety test.”

Note: Refusing a test might lead to an arrest, but it can also limit the evidence against you.

Conclusion

Field sobriety tests are fraught with issues that can unfairly impact your DUI case. From poor test conditions to physical limitations and language barriers, many factors can lead to inaccurate results. Knowing your refusal rights can also be a crucial part of your defense.

Next, we’ll explore how medical conditions can affect BAC readings and what you can do about it.

Medical Conditions Affecting BAC Readings

Medical conditions can play a huge role in skewing blood alcohol concentration (BAC) readings. If you have certain health issues, it can lead to a false positive on a breathalyzer test. Let’s dive into some of these conditions and how they can impact your DUI defense in California.

GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease)

GERD causes stomach acid to flow back into the esophagus, leading to burping and regurgitation. This can bring alcohol from your stomach into your mouth, resulting in “residual mouth alcohol” that falsely inflates your BAC.

Case Study: Becky, who suffers from GERD, experienced an acid reflux episode during her breath test. Her DUI attorney pointed out that this could have caused a falsely high BAC reading. As a result, the prosecutor offered a plea bargain to a lesser charge.

Diabetes

People with diabetes can produce ketones, especially when their blood sugar is high or they are on a low-carb diet. Breathalyzers can’t differentiate between ketones and alcohol, leading to false positives.

Fact: According to HealthLine, ketones can make a diabetic’s breath smell fruity, similar to alcohol. This can confuse breathalyzer devices and result in an inaccurate BAC reading.

Ketosis

Low-carb, high-protein diets can push your body into a state of ketosis, where it burns fat for fuel instead of carbs. This process also produces ketones, which can be mistaken for alcohol by breathalyzer tests.

Example: Imagine you’re on a ketogenic diet and get pulled over for a DUI. The breathalyzer might pick up the ketones and show a BAC reading above the legal limit, even if you haven’t had a drop of alcohol.

Auto-Brewery Syndrome

Auto-brewery syndrome is a rare condition where your body converts carbohydrates into alcohol. This can cause you to appear intoxicated even if you haven’t consumed any alcohol.

News: The National Institutes of Health reports that fungi or bacteria in the gut can create alcohol, leading to high BAC levels after consuming starchy or sugary foods. Medical testing can prove this condition, providing a strong defense in a DUI case.

Medical Defenses

If you have any of these medical conditions, it’s crucial to inform your DUI attorney. They can use this information to challenge the accuracy of your BAC reading.

Quote: “Medical conditions like GERD, diabetes, and auto-brewery syndrome can significantly impact BAC readings. It’s essential to bring these issues to light to ensure a fair trial,” says John Murray, a leading expert in California DUI defense.

Pro Tip: Always carry medical documentation that supports your condition. This can be invaluable in court.

Next, we’ll discuss how rising blood alcohol levels can be used as a defense in your DUI case.

Rising Blood Alcohol as a Defense

Rising blood alcohol is a powerful defense in DUI cases. This concept hinges on the timing of your BAC test and how alcohol is absorbed into your bloodstream.

BAC Absorption

When you drink alcohol, it doesn’t instantly show up in your bloodstream. It takes time for your body to absorb it. On average, it can take about 50 minutes for your BAC to reach its peak, but this can vary based on several factors like:

  • The amount of food in your stomach
  • Your body weight
  • How quickly you drank

Timing of the Test

The crucial point here is that your BAC at the time of driving may be lower than your BAC when tested. For example, if you had a couple of drinks and were pulled over shortly after, your BAC could still be rising. By the time you’re tested at the station, it may have peaked above the legal limit.

Example: Sheila had a couple of quick shots at a bar and drove home immediately. When she was pulled over, her BAC might have been below the legal limit. However, by the time she was tested, it had risen to 0.09%. Her DUI lawyer could argue that her BAC was legally acceptable when she was actually driving.

Legal Implications

The legal system cares about your BAC at the time you were driving, not when you were tested. If you can prove that your BAC was on the rise and below the legal limit while driving, you stand a good chance of fighting the DUI charge.

Quote: “There is nothing illegal about drinking before driving. What is illegal is being impaired at the time you drive,” says Burbank DUI defense attorney John Murray.

How to Use This Defense

To successfully use the rising blood alcohol defense, your lawyer might:

  1. Question the timing of the BAC test: Highlight the delay between the traffic stop and the BAC test.
  2. Bring in expert witnesses: Use toxicologists to explain how BAC rises over time.
  3. Use your drinking timeline: Show that your BAC was likely below the limit when you were driving.

Pro Tip: Keep track of your drinking timeline and any receipts that can help establish the timing of your alcohol consumption.

Next, we’ll explore how police misconduct and procedural violations can impact your DUI case.

Police Misconduct and Procedural Violations

When fighting a DUI charge in California, it’s crucial to examine if the police followed proper procedures. Police misconduct and procedural violations can significantly impact your case. Let’s break down the key areas to focus on:

Probable Cause

For a traffic stop to be legal, the police must have probable cause. This means they need a valid reason to pull you over, like erratic driving or a broken taillight. If the officer lacked probable cause, any evidence gathered during the stop might be inadmissible in court.

Example: Officer Joe stops Lucy for driving too slowly and making a wide turn. However, if it turns out Lucy was driving safely and within legal limits, her lawyer could argue that there was no probable cause for the stop. This could lead to evidence being excluded.

Miranda Rights

After an arrest, police are required to read you your Miranda rights. This includes informing you of your right to remain silent and your right to an attorney. If the officer fails to do this, any statements you make may be suppressed.

Case Study: Officer Joe arrests Lucy and questions her without reading her Miranda rights. Lucy’s lawyer requests a suppression hearing, and the judge throws out her statements. This helps Lucy negotiate a reduced charge.

Suppression Hearings

A suppression hearing is where your lawyer can argue that certain evidence should be excluded because it was obtained illegally. This is a powerful tool in DUI defense.

Fact: If the court finds that the police violated your constitutional rights, they can exclude key pieces of evidence, making it harder for the prosecution to prove their case.

Evidence Exclusion

If evidence is obtained through illegal means, it can be excluded from the trial. This includes breathalyzer results, blood tests, and even your statements.

Statistic: According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, errors in administering field sobriety tests or breathalyzers are not uncommon. If such errors are proven, the evidence can be excluded.

Pro Tip: Always take note of how the police conducted themselves during your arrest. Any deviations from standard procedure could be crucial in your defense.

Next, we’ll address some frequently asked questions about DUI defense in California.

Frequently Asked Questions about DUI Defense in California

What are the odds of getting a DUI dropped?

The odds of getting a DUI dropped depend on several factors, including the specifics of your case and the effectiveness of your defense strategy. Common reasons for dismissal include:

  • Mistakes in DUI blood tests: Errors in handling or processing blood samples can lead to inaccurate results.
  • Violations of Title 17 California Code of Regulations: These regulations govern the collection and analysis of blood, breath, and urine samples. Non-compliance can invalidate the evidence.
  • Lack of probable cause: If the officer did not have a valid reason to stop you, any evidence collected may be excluded.

Case Study: In one case, a driver’s DUI charge was dropped after it was proven that the breathalyzer was not calibrated correctly, leading to false high readings.

How can I fight a DUI without a lawyer?

While it’s possible to represent yourself, it’s generally not advisable due to the complexities of DUI law. However, if you choose to go this route, here are some steps you can take:

  1. Request and review all evidence: This includes police reports, breathalyzer calibration records, and video footage.
  2. Challenge the traffic stop: Argue that the officer lacked reasonable cause to pull you over.
  3. Question sobriety tests: Highlight any inconsistencies or errors in how the tests were administered.

Pro Tip: Even if you decide to represent yourself, consulting with a DUI defense attorney for initial advice can be invaluable.

What is California’s Per Se DUI rule?

California’s Per Se DUI rule states that a driver is automatically considered intoxicated if their Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) is 0.08% or higher. This rule simplifies prosecution, as proving impairment is not necessary—only the BAC level matters.

Fact: For commercial drivers, the BAC limit is lower, at 0.04%. For drivers under 21, the limit is even stricter, at 0.01%.

Understanding these regulations can help you and your attorney build a strong defense. For personalized advice and representation, contact Inland Empire Criminal Defense at (909) 939-7126.

Conclusion

At Inland Empire Criminal Defense, we understand that facing a DUI charge can be overwhelming and stressful. That’s why we are committed to providing personalized defense strategies tailored to your unique situation. Our experienced attorneys have a deep understanding of California’s DUI laws and are dedicated to ensuring your rights are protected throughout the legal process.

We offer free consultations to discuss your case and explore the best defense options available. Whether it’s challenging the accuracy of a breathalyzer test, questioning the validity of field sobriety tests, or highlighting medical conditions that could affect BAC readings, we have the expertise to build a robust defense.

Our team serves clients across Southern California, including San Bernardino, Riverside, and Los Angeles Counties. We are here to support you every step of the way, fighting to achieve the most favorable outcome possible.

Don’t face a DUI charge alone. Contact Inland Empire Criminal Defense today at (909) 939-7126 for a free consultation and let us help you navigate this challenging time. Your path to justice starts here.

Frequently Asked Questions

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Yes, understanding the financial pressures that can come with legal representation, our attorney offers flexible payment plans. This approach ensures that quality legal defense is accessible for all our clients in Riverside, San Bernardino, and Los Angeles Counties.

Yes, Inland Empire Criminal Defense offers free consultations. This is part of our commitment to providing accessible and transparent legal services to residents of Riverside, San Bernardino, and Los Angeles Counties.

We offer both in-person and over-the-phone consultations to accommodate your preferences and needs. Whether you’re in Riverside, San Bernardino, or Los Angeles County, we ensure that you can access our legal services in the way that suits you best.

Our office is typically closed on weekends. However, we do make exceptions for meetings by special arrangement. Our commitment is to be as accommodating as possible to meet the unique needs of our clients in Riverside, San Bernardino, and Los Angeles Counties.

Our legal services are specifically tailored to residents of Riverside, San Bernardino, and Los Angeles Counties. For cases outside these areas, we recommend consulting avvo.com to find appropriate legal assistance. Our focused approach allows us to provide specialized defense catering to the unique legal landscape of these counties.

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