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Vehicle Code 23110: Throwing Objects at a Motor Vehicle in California Laws in California

VC 23110: Throwing Objects at a Motor Vehicle

Legal Definition:

(a) Any person who throws any substance at a vehicle or any occupant thereof on a highway is guilty of a misdemeanor.

(b) Any person who with intent to do great bodily injury maliciously and willfully throws or projects any rock, brick, bottle, metal or other missiles, or projects any other substance capable of doing serious bodily harm at such vehicle or occupant thereof is guilty of a felony and upon conviction shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison.

The difference between these two sections is that under (b), you were throwing a rock, brick, bottle, or other missiles at a vehicle with the intent to cause great bodily injury, or you discharged a firearm at a vehicle or occupant with the intent to cause great bodily injury.

What does this mean?

A motor vehicle is any vehicle that is self-propelled. The highway is defined as any road or another place that is publicly maintained and that is open to the public for travel. It is not important if the item is thrown is being thrown at a car that isn’t moving, or what item you are throwing. So long as an item is thrown, you would be guilty under this charge. You fall under (b) when it involves the specific items listed with the intent to cause great bodily harm.

Imagine high school kids, throwing rocks off of an overpass, onto cars passing by. In that scenario, it is likely you are not trying to cause great bodily harm to anyone, but you are still violating subsection (a). To do something maliciously means that you did the act of throwing the object with the intent to harm someone or do a wrongful act. To do something willingly means you did that on purpose.


A violation under VC 23110(a) is a misdemeanor offense. If convicted of this charge as a misdemeanor, you could be sentenced up to six months in County Jail. You would be required to serve at least 50% of that time in custody. You could also be fined up to $1,000 for a conviction under this section.

However, if you are charged under VC 23110(b), you are charged with a felony. If you are convicted of this section, you can be sent to State Prison for 16 months, 2 or 3 years. You would be required to serve 50% of that time in custody. You’d also be subject to a fine of up to $10,000, as well as Restitution to any victim you actually injure.

This is not a strike offense under California’s Three Strikes Law. It is also not a Sex Offense requiring Sex Registration under PC 290VC 23110(b) is a crime of moral turpitude, so it would directly impact your status in Immigration Court or if you have a professional licenseVC 23110(a) is not a crime of moral turpitude.

Common Defenses

  1. Statute of Limitations
  2. Insufficient Evidence
  3. Violation of Rights
  4. False Accusations

If you never intended to cause great bodily injury upon throwing the object at the motor vehicle, then you would not be guilty under (b). Failing to show your intent, would mean there is insufficient evidence to find you guilty of the crime. Under (a), if you didn’t intend to even throw an object, but it by accident fell, then there would be insufficient evidence to find you guilty for that section.

False accusations are not technically considered a “defense” in criminal law. In essence, the defense of false accusations comes from a person who falsely blames you for a crime you did not commit. Here, a driver can say the item thrown onto their vehicle came from you, but they can be mistaken. Your criminal defense attorney can then argue that the person is falsely accusing you of a crime, which can then act as a defense for a dismissal of your case.

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Facing a charge of Throwing Objects at a Motor Vehicle (VC 23110) in Ontario is a serious offense that can severely impact your life and reputation. A conviction under VC 23110 can lead to a jail sentence of up to six months, and in cases where there’s an intent to cause great bodily injury, the term can extend to up to three years. Beyond jail time, such a charge can have profound professional and immigration consequences if not expertly handled.

At Inland Empire Criminal Defense, our Ontario VC 23110 attorney has a strong track record of successfully defending clients against charges of throwing objects at a motor vehicle under VC 23110. We understand the gravity of these accusations and the significant impact they can have on your life. Our team is dedicated to providing a robust defense, ensuring that every aspect of your case is thoroughly examined and strategically challenged.

You don’t have to face these charges alone. We offer a complimentary initial consultation and are available around the clock to answer any questions and address concerns you might have. For expert legal assistance, contact the Inland Empire Criminal Defense team today at 909-939-7126. Our office is conveniently located in Ontario, CA, and we are committed to defending your rights and securing the best possible outcome for your case.

Frequently Asked Questions

Absolutely, Inland Empire Criminal Defense prioritizes your privacy and confidentiality. Every consultation with our attorney is conducted with the utmost discretion, ensuring your information remains secure and private.

Yes, understanding the financial pressures that can come with legal representation, our attorney offers flexible payment plans. This approach ensures that quality legal defense is accessible for all our clients in Riverside, San Bernardino, and Los Angeles Counties.

Yes, Inland Empire Criminal Defense offers free consultations. This is part of our commitment to providing accessible and transparent legal services to residents of Riverside, San Bernardino, and Los Angeles Counties.

We offer both in-person and over-the-phone consultations to accommodate your preferences and needs. Whether you’re in Riverside, San Bernardino, or Los Angeles County, we ensure that you can access our legal services in the way that suits you best.

Our office is typically closed on weekends. However, we do make exceptions for meetings by special arrangement. Our commitment is to be as accommodating as possible to meet the unique needs of our clients in Riverside, San Bernardino, and Los Angeles Counties.

Our legal services are specifically tailored to residents of Riverside, San Bernardino, and Los Angeles Counties. For cases outside these areas, we recommend consulting to find appropriate legal assistance. Our focused approach allows us to provide specialized defense catering to the unique legal landscape of these counties.

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